Posted: 07 June 2017

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The note reads that the withdrawal was motivated by a "non-conformity of production."

The Ministry of Health announced that it is going on the withdrawal from the shelves of retail outlets of bottles of Coca-Cola 1.5 liter belonging to L170329863M lot.

In case you need to buy a product Coca-Cola the advice is to simply check the bottling plant, lot and expiry date , the only useful data. The contents of the bottle 1.5 l has a very unpleasant taste , a very dense appearance and concentrated levels of caffeine , acidic phosphoric acid and sulfites.

The Coca Cola in the eye of the cyclone.

It is a game produced at the Caserta area of Marcianise and destined placing in the South Italian market. The company Hbc Italy expressed in a separate statement his disappointment, apologized and confirmed that all hazardous bottles will be withdrawn as soon as possible, urging consumers not to drink the drink . The measure , placed on a purely precautionary measure concerns Lot L170329863M with date expiring on 28/09/2017 bottle 1.5 l. To make the necessary measure are the non-conformity of production. The warning call of the lot has been published on the new website dedicated to food alert the Ministry of Health.

At Coca-Cola, of course, it was not enough that doctors and researchers piegassero science to company interests. It was necessary that someone was using the results of "research" to flood of messages the public. Who better than journalists? An article in the BMJ now reveals how the firm has secretly funded conferences for journalists in some US universities to stimulate the dissemination of articles in favor of sugary sodas. When a food or drink are accused of being the cause or contributory cause of the disease, you can be sure that will be implemented by the manufacturer, a marketing strategy aimed at associating that drink or that product to healthy lifestyles and health and wellness. The producers of sugar-sweetened beverages have long been under fire because it is well established that the consumption of these products is associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity.

The marketing that reaches the public, easily identifiable, is to associate the brand to the names and images of samples and sporting events such as the Olympics, globally, nationally and locally. In the last two categories belong sponsorship of sporting activities, such as youth tournaments, or education programs to sports and, more generally, to exercise.

This is the case, for example, the EUROBIS project, in Umbria with the participation of several institutional partners, including the University of Perugia, and with the sponsorship of Coca Cola. Projects like this are also used to clean up the image of the company, in addition to the name to associate with healthy activities. But the most insidious marketing strategies, because they do not easily identifiable, and probably more effective, are not those which come directly to the public, but those who do it indirectly. And what better vehicle for the indirect marketing that the health system and its practitioners and researchers. To get the message across that you can drink plenty of his drinks if you also exercise intensity, and thus prevent overweight and obesity, Coca Cola has invested in the past million. Created by the way, in August of 2015 as revealed by an investigation of the New York Times, a non-profit, called Global Energy Balance Network, for the purpose of deflating the proposals, in the USA and many other countries, the a surcharge to decrease the consumption of sugary soft drinks, groped to trace sales, decreased by 25% in recent years in the US.

Through this association, Coca Cola has donated more than $ 120 million over 5 years to fund research centers, individual researchers and doctors, but also the National Institute of Health, because with research and publications spostassero accusations on the causes of obesity from sugary drinks to the lack of physical activity. The message to the public was to be: if you want to maintain a healthy weight, do plenty of exercise, and do not worry much about what you drink. Marion Nestle, author of "The policies of carbonated beverages" and professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University, interviewed by The New York Times said: "The Global Energy Balance Network is nothing but a front group for Coca Cola, whose program is very clear: to ensure that these researchers confuse science and divert it from the attention." The investigation of the New York Times was well documented, the evidence was incontrovertible. So much so that Coke could not help but admit his guilt and promised transparency. A few days later Coke has published a list of all the people and institutions that had received money to participate in the "research" program: it comes to hundreds of small and large loans. The American Academy of Pediatrics, for example, received $ 3 million.

Some of the beneficiaries have simply accepted; others tried to justify himself; few have decided to return the money (the University of Colorado returned a million dollars, for example). The head of the research department of Coca Cola, who had orchestrated the program, has resigned, or was forced to resign. The Global Energy Balance Network has been scrapped. But not the whole truth had been revealed. At Coca-Cola, of course, it was not enough that doctors and researchers piegassero science to company interests. It was necessary that someone was using the results of "research" to flood of messages the public. Who better than journalists? An article in the BMJ now reveals how the firm has secretly funded conferences for journalists in some US universities to stimulate the dissemination of articles in favor of sugary sodas.

A CNN reporter, for example, participated in 2014 at a conference at the University of Colorado, funded with $ 37,000, and had then prepared a service in favor of the lack of physical activity as a cause of obesity, by completing the sugary sodas. The first funding for these conferences in 2011 and the first conference was held in 2012, with 20 participants. The university professor who had received this funding wrote an email to the Coca Cola after classifying the event as a "home run" (a point in baseball; a goal, in football terms). He added that "journalists have told us that this conference is fabulous and can inspire many items and services"; "I think in the next conference we will involve other sponsors." For subsequent conferences funding it increased to $ 45,000. A company manager wrote to the same teacher: "I read in the event report: excellent. Count on us for the next ". A journalist, after finding out that the funding for the conference he had attended came from Coca Cola, complained to the National Press Foundation (NFP). The conference organizers, interviewed by the chairman of the NFP result of this complaint, contacted the journalist and told her that the funding came from the University of Colorado Foundation, the resources made available for education, hiding the fact that the foundation he received money from Coca Cola. The journalist accepted the explanation, demonstrating that it is not easy, even for a journalist to distinguish between scientific information and marketing, when it is properly concealed. The author of the BMJ article detective work was made possible by the application of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), a US law that allows you to have access, on request, to all documents, including those of a confidential nature, related to the problem under investigation. Since May 2016, a FOIA is also in force in Italy, even if it requires full transparency, on request, only the public administration. If questioned, hardly Coca Cola would make public all the documentation concerning the sponsorship of research, projects and educational activities in Italy. But you might ask the data to the receivers. Why, for example, do not ask for full disclosure of the money received and how they were used to the various institutions participating in the project EUROBIS in Umbria? Or, again in Umbria, to Beat the Street.E project would also be interesting to know from the Italian National Press Federation if by chance were not well organized in our country conference for journalists.


The Coca-Cola (also known as Coke especially in the US) is an industrial soft drink type soft drink, its dark color is due to the said synthetic colorant "caramel" present in it The Coca-Cola "was invented by the American chemist John Stith Pemberton on May 8, 1886 in Atlanta, initially as a remedy for headaches and fatigue. The first name that was given to drink was "Pemberton's French Wine Coca". That Pemberton was a variation of the "coca" (or Vin Mariani) wine, a mixture of wine and coca leaves that had had great success in Europe when it was created by the Corsican chemist Angelo Mariani. Alcohol was later replaced with an extract of kola nuts, a tropical plant is considered not harmful to health. From the use combined of the two main ingredients, coca and cola, the drink gained its current name. When even the coke was banned (from plant extracts in fact cocaine), it was rejected by the alkaloid extracted from coca leaves, while the cola (for nuts) continued to be used.

In 1927, Coca-Cola is also imported to Italy, in 1960 appeared the first Coca-Cola in cans, while in 1980 also in the PET bottle. Coca-Cola is prepared according to a recipe kept secret, the main ingredients are: sugar, carbon dioxide, phosphoric acid (preservative), caramel (coloring), also contains caffeine, and extracts and aromas we cola (an African tree) and coca leaves (previously decocainizzate); the only nutritional ingredient is sugar, while the other substance present in high quantities and caffeine. In the production lends particular attention to filter the water, to ensure the same everywhere flavor. From a nutritional point of view there is not much difference between Coca-Cola and many alleged refreshing summer drinks, as well as other dietary supplements or fruit juice, a liter of fruit juice or a liter of Coca provide the same calorie intake rather, many concentrated juices are much more heating, the aspect to consider is that taking in excess of a drink rich in simple sugars is not healthy.


Products Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola mercatoLa is the soft drink par excellence, since 1886 the year of its creation it has spread worldwide, becoming today a unique and inimitable product and the best known brand on the planet. Alongside the traditional Coca-Cola, products that are of particular curiosity and occupy a large share of the market today is undoubtedly the Coca-Cola Zero and Coca-Cola Light. The Coca-Cola Light was introduced on the market in 1982, while Coca-Cola Zero in 2005. Both of these drinks have no calories; the Coca-Zero and also in the Coca-Light, no sugar, but aspartame content, an artificial sweetener made up of amino acids, aspartic and felanina, this substance makes sweet the two drinks in non-natural way in recent years has reported the their biggest hits zero coca cola, which in 2011 doubled for the fifth consecutive year its sales value. Making product innovation is, for companies already established and with their flagship products being already mature, more and more difficult and risky in terms of sales but also the possible erosion of the existing market share. The coke successful zero, marketed in Italy since 2007, and due to several factors: first, the product is aimed at a target consumers who, in most cases, it does not overlap with that of the traditional Coke, spreading so the spectrum of potential opportunities for consumption. The zero coca cola is in fact presented as a valid alteration of the elder sister, while maintaining the taste (unlike the much criticized light coca cola). One of the latest advertising "to drink it to believe it", in collaboration with UCI Cinemas, sees many customers unaware sugar victims of Coca-Cola, drink Coca-Cola Zero in lieu of a traditional, all in order to convince even the most skeptical that Coca-Cola zero keeps intact the Coca-Cola taste but without a trace of sugar.

The Coca-Cola Zero, the latter contains the educolorante cyclamate, banned in the US but permitted in Europe. The drink Coca-Cola Zero sold in Italy is not the same as that of the US, the difference is inconspicuous but significant, and in the presence of cyclamate, banned because the Food and Drung Administration (FDA) has advanced suspects toxicity, not excluding the hypothesis that it may be a carcinogen. Despite the ban the US, Europe has marketed the recipe including cyclamate with permission of the Scientific Committee for Human Food, this is not the only case in which Europe and the United States express different opinions on the toxicity of products and food additives. The press office of Coca-Cola Italy, argues that cyclamate is an additive educoloranti of the family, and points out that the use of cyclamate as educolorante in foods and drinks allowed in more than 50 countries around the world including Canada, Australia and Mexico. And 'interesting to note that the same brand can keep the market three products, two of which are absolutely similar, without ever losing its consumers now faithful who remain tied to the Coca-Cola taste - traditional, light or zero that The Coca- Cola is available in most eating places in the world, and is the drink par excellence in fast food is important to ensure that any use is occasional and always remember that the water is still the best drink, especially during meals.

For food additive is defined as "any substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of food, regardless of the fact of having a nutritional value, which intentionally added to food for a technological purpose in the production, processing , preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage of foods, it may be reasonably expected to become, in it or its derivatives, a component of such foods, either directly or indirectly "(Council Directive 89/107 / EEC). Food additives play a variety of functions that are often taken for granted. Foods are subjected to many environmental variables such as temperature fluctuations, oxidation and exposure to microbes, which can modify the original composition. Food additives are essential for preserving the qualities and characteristics of food that consumers demand and keeping food safe, nutritious and appetizing from farm to fork. These substances are subject to strict regulation and in order to be used shall have proven useful, be safe and do not mislead the consumer. Food additives may be added intentionally to food, at any stage of their production cycle in order to: ? keep as much intact nutritional qualities. “Improve the organoleptic characteristics such as taste, smell, color and texture. ? extend storage times.” encourage the production technology. By law, all additives added to a product must be indicated on the label, for each additive must be reported group membership indicating the function (for example: "antimicrobials") also also be indicated by their European number (E = europe ) followed by three or four digits (for example: calcium sorbate or E203).

Additives that maintain the freshness of food and prevent deterioration Some food additives help maintain the freshness and safety of food. They allow you to lengthen the shelf life by protecting foods from oxidation and deterioration caused by microorganisms. They can be divided into two categories according to their main function. Antioxidants Prevent the oxidation of foods that results rancidity or discoloration. They are used in baked goods, cereals, in fats, oils and salad dressings. The major fat soluble antioxidants are: Tocopherols (E306-309), BHA (butyl hydroxy anisole or E320) and BHT (butyl hydroxy toluene or E321) - impe discono to edible fats, vegetable oils and salad dressings to go rancid. Ascorbic acid (E300) and citric acid (E330) - preserve the color of freshly cut fruits and vegetables. Preservatives They limit, retard or arrest the growth of microorganisms (eg. Bacteria, yeast, mold) that are present or that are introduced into the food, preventing spoilage or toxicity. They are used, for example, in bakery products, wine, cheese, salted meats in, in fruit juices and margarine. Here are some examples:

Sulfur dioxide and sulphites (E220-228) - help to prevent discolouration of the dried fruits and vegetables. Sulfites also inhibit the growth of bacteria in wine and fermented foods, some snacks and baked goods. Sulfites also have antioxidant properties. Calcium propionate (E282) - prevents bread and products of moldy oven. Nitrates and nitrites (salts of sodium and potassium) (E249-252) - are used as preservatives in processed meat, for example in frankfurters, and to maintain the safety of products by preventing the growth of bacteria that produce botulinum toxin.

Additives which enhance or accentuate the sensory characteristics Additives are also used to impart certain characteristics to foods, improving texture and contributing to the food production processes. These include: agents that change the taste and texture This category includes: Emulsifiers and stabilizers - The purpose of these food additives is to maintain consistent texture and prevent the separation of ingredients in products such as margarine, cream low calorie spreads, ice cream, salad dressings and mayonnaise. Many versions of the common low-fat foods are based on this technology. Any recipe that requires the mixing of ingredients that normally do not mix, such as fat and water, need emulsifiers and stabilizers to obtain and maintain the desired consistency. Examples are lecithin and mono and di-glycerides. Thickeners - these substances contribute to increase the viscosity of food preparations. They are added to foods such as salad dressings and flavored milk. As thickeners are often used naturally occurring substances, such as gelatin or pectin. Sweeteners - both sweeteners "mass" (added in large quantities because low calorie) and those "intensive" (added in very small quantities) impart a sweet taste to foods and are very useful in the preparation of low-calorie products and for special dietary products, such as those for diabetics. Intense sweeteners, such as acesulfame K (E950), aspartame (E951) and saccharin (E954) are respectively 130-200, 200 and 300-500 times sweeter than sugar and is calorie-free. The thaumatin (E957), a naturally sweet protein extracted from the fruit of the plant Thaumatococcus danielli, is 2,500 times sweeter than sugar and is used in extremely small doses for its aromatic characteristics. Among the bulk sweeteners are sorbitol (E420), isomalt (E953) and maltitol (E965) which may be contained in the "table" sweeteners and in the low energy content of foods, of which increase the volume and palatability. These substances have a reduced caloric value, providing 2.4 kcal / gram compared with 4 kcal / gram for other carbohydrates. Flavor enhancer - the best known is probably the monosodium glutamate (MSG; E621) which is used to isolate and enhance the flavors in foods to which is added. It is mainly used in very tasty food and a variety of Eastern dishes. Other additives - in addition to the above, this group includes acids, acidity regulators (used to control the acidity and alkalinity in various types of food products), anti-caking agents (used to avoid the formation of lumps in powdered foods ), anti-foaming agents (reduce foams, eg. in the cooking of hams), packaging gases (used for certain types of sealed packages, for example for meat, fish, seafood, vegetables and prepared salads that are found in the refrigerated cabinet), etc.

The color is one of the main sensory characteristics and helps to ensure that a food is thoroughly welcome or unwelcome. If the addition of color can appear, the eyes of someone, purely cosmetic, there is no doubt that color is an important factor in the perception, by the consumer, food is often associated with a given flavor or a specific flavor intensity. The dyes are used to add or restore color in a food, to enhance its visual appeal and meet the expectations of the consumer. The industrial processing of peas and the preparation of jams, for example, may cause a loss of color dyes that can compensate. Some dyes are used as a simple aesthetic decoration on cakes and pastries. It remains, however, unacceptable that these substances are used to mask or hide a poor quality. For further information, refer to the coloring section.

The labeling of foodstuffs is defined as the set of indications, trademarks and trade, images or symbols that relate to the food product and which appear directly on the package or on a label appostavi or the sealing device or on signs, rings or straps linked to the product itself or the accompanying documents of the food. Through the manufacturer label conveys essential information on products (net quantity, expiry date, storage conditions and use, etc.), As well as information that, while not essential, is considered useful (nutrition labeling, details on recycling of packaging, etc.). The labeling of foodstuffs is governed by a number of European and national measures that we can roughly be divided into two categories: the horizontal rules (lex generalis), regulating the general labeling principles (Legislative Decree 109/92 and subsequent . Modification., for example, defines the criteria for the labeling of all prepackaged foodstuffs); Vertical rules (lex specialis), which intervene to regulate the labeling of specific products (such as milk, eggs, beef, seafood, etc.).

The labeling of food products is to ensure that consumers are provided with comprehensive information on the content and composition of products, with the aim of protecting the health and interests. Some foods, such as GMOs, food allergens, food for infants and various drinks are also subject to other specific regulations. The labeling of foodstuffs must include the required information, which must be easily comprehensible and visible, clearly legible and indelible, some of them must appear in the same field. The compulsory particulars include: ? the trade name; ? the list of ingredients made from their enumeration in descending order of weight and indication of their specific name; ? the amount of an ingredient or category of ingredients; the net quantity expressed in units of volume for liquid products; ? The minimum conscervazione term: The term and the mention <> when the date includes an indication of the day or << BEST BEFORE END ... >> in other cases. Any special storage conditions and utlilizzo; the name or business name and address of the manufacturer or packer or of a seller; the place of origin or provenance; The constructions for use; alcoholic strength by volume and effective.

Phenomenon of unification of the world markets, allowed the spread of economic, technological innovations and the geopolitical changes that have pushed production models and more uniform and converging consumption. Coined by the magazine "The Economist" in 1962, the term globalization has spread only since the mid-nineties of the twentieth century, and is sometimes seen as synonymous with liberalization, to indicate the progressive reduction of obstacles to the free movement of goods and of capital on a global scale.

Globalization (or globalization) is a historical long-term process, which began with the development of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires since the buckets. XV and XVI. The geographical explorations and regular trade, in fact, put in direct contact Europe, Africa, Asia and America and these relations, mainly economic in nature, it developed a stable interdependence, as well as the start a division of the world's work linked to the colonial system. Between the middle of the eighteenth and the end of the nineteenth century., The expansion of production capacity, transport and communication initiated by the Industrial Revolution contributed to the emergence of strong economic ties worldwide. In the late nineteenth century took shape politicization of globalization, typical age of imperialism: the companies represented by nation states intended to politically manage the effects of the world economic networks.

Between 1870 and 1914, he was present at the first phase of globalization itself, characterized by an impressive growth of capital flows and migration, and the doubling of the world trade. Hence there arose, however, serious clashes between the major powers, which heralded an era of crisis and global conflicts. At the end of the Second World War, the trend was reversed again. In the intentions of the victorious countries, the political order defined within the UN had to be accompanied by a new world economic order. Already the victorious powers in the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944 agreed on the principle to provide a legal and institutional framework to the world economy, in order to prevent the economic problems were tackled unilaterally and promote international cooperation. They were created for this purpose institutions that still characterize the economic globalization, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, the GATT (English term applied to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade).

Since 1960 (the year-symbol of decolonization) 1980 took place a second phase of globalization, in which he was involved a greater number of countries. Exports as a percentage of GDP grew not only in industrialized countries, as in the beginning of the century, but also in many countries in the developing (LDCs), although with significant differences: the newly industrialized economies (NIEs) increased clearly its ties with the world economy, and this connection process to a certain extent also the economies of the Second world, ie the socialist camp, while Africa and Latin America were involved in the integration process mainly through the spiral credits / foreign debt. Meanwhile, in the early seventies, the end of the convertibility of the dollar to be confirmed by the US marked the end of the Bretton Woods system, but certainly not the internationalization of the economy; the flexible exchange rate system, in fact, helped to accentuate. In the third phase of globalization, which began in the eighties and still in progress, the relationship between export and import flows and GDP increased, reaching unprecedented levels.

It is manifested a radical transformation of the structure of trade: trade between countries in different stages of development, and especially is advanced trade liberalization have increased significantly both trade intra-industry between countries with the same level of development is strongly supported together with the deregulation by theorists and political actors of Neoliberalism season. The collapse of the socialist camp also allowed to reintegrate fully those economies and those markets in the world market. A series of economic reforms in emerging countries like China and India has caused a sharp increase in world output, trade and direct investment flows. Since the early nineties it has also accelerated the globalization of finance, as evidenced by the rapid simultaneous increase in external assets and liabilities of many countries.

They are at the same time increased direct investment, which accentuate the international division of labor and economic domination of the major powers. They have taken on greater importance investments that reduce production costs, and many companies in the industrial countries have relocated to low-cost countries work stages of production less profitable. On the other hand, the development of emerging economies has been impressive: in 1974-2004 the per capita income in China has increased by six times that of India and has doubled; China's GDP rose from 3% of the world 13%, exports from 1% to 6% of the world's ones and direct investments incoming from 2% to 10%. The spread of technology has had a strong acceleration; technical progress, with its effects on transport and communication costs, has reduced the natural barriers to trade. In this market "global", multinational companies have become the main engine of globalization.

However, while the regulatory restrictions on the free movement of goods and capital were reduced, movements of workers remained however at a lower level than in the first years of the twentieth century., And continued to be regulated by restrictive legislation. In addition, new technologies have facilitated the coordination of activities far apart and encouraged the fragmentation of production processes and the relocation of their segments in different countries, which has ended up weakening wage workers. The race to the bottom in the conditions of workers and the increasing trend on the world economy dominance by large multinationals, increasingly autonomous from individual states, the growing influence of these companies and international financial institutions on the decisions of governments have caused a worsening the economic and social imbalances internal to the individual States and in relations between countries and economic areas. Globalization has therefore been accompanied by an overall increase in inequality.

These elements, in addition to the emergence of "global issues", such as those related to the environment, climate change, etc., Have meant that globalization also saw the rise of his opponents and critics, from that movement no globalization that began in Seattle in 1999 during a summit of the WTO (World trade organization). According to the criticism of anti-globalization, free trade and the organizations that regulate it are a threat to social rights and the environment. In particular, the free exchange may not be fair because it takes place between nations characterized by different levels of development and sees one (or a group) of these huge advantage in position with respect to the other. Even economists who have played a leading role in the supranational bodies, such as J. Stiglitz, have expressed similar criticisms, while scholars such as M. Chossudovsky spoke of "globalization of poverty".

Many critics believe, therefore, necessary to enact corrective measures to ensure more than a free trade (free trade) fair trade (fair trade). In this sense the movement of criticism to g. It is also defined new global, as arises in large part not in a hostile manner to g. as such, but in the present globalization, and moves from the idea of using the potential global economic benefits derived from the integration in order to change the sign and place it at the disposal of the interests of humanity.

The sponsorship is a very diverse phenomenon and in constant and continuous evolution in practice. Several are the statutory profiles that offer insights for codicisticamente oriented analysis of the clauses contained in the contracts. Employee of the phenomenon and history for "sponsorship" means, in the most common linguistic meaning of the term, the "finance a sport, a show, an artistic or cultural event for advertising purposes." The term derives from the Latin "sponsors, sponsoris" or guarantor, surety, and English Godfather "sponsor" the one who finances the sports activities of an athlete or a team, or a show or an art event or culture in order to obtain publicity for their products. In recent times it has been increasingly spreading in the Italian and foreign trade practice, the phenomenon of sponsorship, impostosi phenomenon to the attention of lawyers and experts in a growing sector in order to acquire an independent significance in the context of more general advertising contracts. Historically sponsorship has always existed in practice. At first it was a contract basically consistent sided structure in acts of donation to the spirit of patronage. After the contract has evolved into something more complex where the spirit of generosity was gradually to fade, while remaining the unilateralism in nature, as the provision of "benefactor" did not correspond to any of the counterparty benefit if to object to the fact were disclosed. Then the sponsor was beginning to no longer content merely condescending behavior of sponsored, but requested the latter of specific behaviors for which the contract became a correspondent performances.

In particular athlete or sports team sponsored undertook to perform the function of advertising of goods message vehicle produced by the sponsor and provided free or at very favorable terms to the subject sponsored. This type of sponsorship called "internal" according to a terminology from the law and French law, was probably the first form in which it started the phenomenon, in order to make known to the public that the business and possibly the successes of a sportsman , they were made using clothing or equipment provided by a given company. Currently our society, characterized by rampant consumerism, which often leads to privilege in choosing the image of the assets rather than their quality, has greatly promoted the sponsorship and finally saw it rise to that particular contract whereby an enterprise contraente- (sponsors), he turns to his advantage in a commercial vehicle, the contracting party performance (sponsee) that can be realized in many different fields (construction of sports events, artistic or cultural activities, etc.). The economic doctrine recognizes in sponsoring a particular business communication technique is part of the "marketing mix", and that is the set of tools used by the company to achieve its business objectives. Even the Coke brand has ultilizzato and uses massively marketing techniques to hit its target audience and impose his mission his obbiettivi.Il brand cola has always focused and linked its image to the sport and to life all 'outdoors, it smepre sponsored by major sporting events worldwide or small events at the local level (coca cola coop). Also this year will be on the side of the World Cup that will be held in Brazil to spread his product concept "felicita.La most famous drink in the world and now associated with the sport and all the moments of community life and bring joy and happiness. Despite the coke is a sugary and carbonated soft drink (calorie), is today more and more often linked to physical activity and even a healthy and alimentaqzione regime and salutistico.Coca cola has been able to adapt to the times and fashions also thanks to scelter oculte and winning advertising and promotional campaigns.

Legal nature of the sponsorship contract from the legal point of view the speech is more complex because, despite the efforts of the doctrine, the institution in question has not yet received a final location codicistica. This is due in large part to the fact that it is a sector influenced and conditioned by economic change, it is extremely difficult to fit into rigid and predefined schemes a constantly changing reality. Any attempt at classification and accommodation dogmatic sponsorship, is made even more difficult by the ambivalent meaning given to the term in question is used to identify the legal transaction between sponsors and sponsored, is to represent the result of it. As mentioned above, attempts to sell sponsorship within the patterns of a typical contract, which are codicistica legislation its regulation, has not for the moment led to positive results. The thesis that sees in sponsoring a service contract, has been widely criticized in the legal literature starting from the assumption that in the contract the obligation in the contract is an obligation of result, and the contractor is necessarily one organized in the form business; sponsorship, however, no result, and also is guaranteed, it sponsored the subject is not always an entrepreneur (consider for example the phenomenon of sponsorship of individual athletes, sports events, shows in general). Moreover, as has been reiterated by several parties, the subject-sponsored acts for pursuing its objectives (eg. The victory in a sports competition) that have nothing to do with the services provided to the sponsor. On the basis of what has been argued, is the dominant shareable address that qualifies the sponsorship contract as an atypical contract for pecuniary and corresponding performance, the cause of which is detectable in the use for purposes directly or indirectly advertising, activity, name or the image of others in exchange for a consideration which may consist of a loan in cash or in the supply of materials or other goods. Being flexible contract it is clear that the legitimacy of this institution depends, pursuant to art. 1322 cc, paragraph 2, the assessment of the worthiness of the interests pursued by the parties.

Sponsorship and advertising The sponsorship deal is an atypical contract that is brought back in the case of the broad category of advertising contracts from which, however, differs. In fact the object of the store advertising contracts is merely direct dissemination of a message intended to promote sales of a particular good or service, sponsorship, however, the message conveyed is not the exaltation of the quality of the product or service of a 'company, but instead realizes the disclosure of the distinguishing sign of the sponsor. There is no consensus in the literature in considering sponsoring one of the forms of advertising propaganda among the most advanced. Sponsorship appeals to the feelings, passions, consumer emotionalism, much more than I can do traditional advertising. The commercial message is spread through the use of events to relevant image content; the effect will be that of a thin and discreet persuasion, but intense and, therefore, the purchase of induction of this or that product whose brand is conveyed by the team or by the athlete which it is connected. characteristic of sponsorship element is the so-called "return effect" for which the advertising message spread in an indirect way in the course of events that would have been carried out, independently of one another, "programming" is used to enhance and improve the knowledge of the product or sponsored enterprise. E 'was observed that radio and television sponsorship is the kind of sponsorship that comes closest to the advertising diffusion contract. It is in particular pairing of the name of a product or company to a radio or television broadcast, so that the audience can easily identify as directly attributable to the sponsor. The television sponsorship differs, however, from traditional advertising for the method of spreading the message which is, as a rule, contained in a program concerning activities extraneous to that of the sponsor, and is conditioned in its effectiveness by carrying out the same program and the communication skills of the conductor.

From sponsorship must be distinguished in the first place the sponsorship or patronage which does not presuppose a commercial intent and therefore an obligation of advertising and promotion, but falls in the acts of donations of a patron in fact, that it is instead driven by the intention to increase, through funding, diffusion of sport, art, culture, etc. Among the various forms of sponsorship traceable in practice there are the following: sponsorship of a sporting event; Sponsoring a club or team, sponsoring individual athletes; technical sponsorship; committees and associations for sponsoring special "taken" (racing, sports, travel); TV sponsorship (cd bartering). Sponsorship of a sports event - Purpose of the sponsorship agreement may be an event that runs out in a short space of time (eg. A football game) or a sporting event more prominent and longer duration (eg. A basketball league).

The different contractual figures From sponsorship must be distinguished in the first place the sponsorship or patronage which does not presuppose a commercial intent and therefore an obligation of advertising and promotion, but falls in the acts of donations of a patron in fact, which is moved by the intention instead of increasing, through funding, the dissemination of sport, art, culture, etc. Among the various forms of sponsorship traceable in practice there are the following: sponsorship of a sporting event; Sponsoring a club or team, sponsoring individual athletes; technical sponsorship; committees and associations for sponsoring special "taken" (racing, sports, travel); TV sponsorship (cd bartering). Sponsorship of a sports event - Purpose of the sponsorship agreement may be an event that runs out in a short space of time (eg. A football game) or a sporting event more prominent and longer duration (eg. A basketball league). In the first case the sponsor helps with their contributions, to organize the race and reserves generally the right to name the aforementioned event in his name, to use the spaces in which the sporting event is taking place to place billboards, banners and other means of propaganda for the purpose of an advertising return of distributing flyers and brochures during the event, to remember the name of their company or its products through the use of loudspeakers. Next to these modes of sponsorship are the most common, there is, in cases of the most important events, business licensing agreement that the sponsor is permitted to be used in advertising or in its products, the official of the event marks accompanied by the "official sponsor" or "official supplier".

The term Decadent indicates a cultural movement that arose in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as a reaction to positivism in philosophy and the Realism in literature. The word comes from Decadent, a term used in France to indicate the "accursed" poets with the novelty of their art and an irregular life appeared corrupt and dissolute. They are not offended, but took possession of the word and made it the title of their magazine. Benedetto Croce stigmatized the decaying with a negative connotation, and with them, the entire production of the late twentieth century. The Decadent had its radiation center in France for two reasons: the first chance, due to the simultaneous flowering of artists, poets and writers in this area and the second is of historical and literary: Romanticism in France was It was an acquired movement, not independently created, leaving open and alive, issues and problems elsewhere (Germany, England and Italy) had been solved. The Decadent has a philosophical and historical genesis is, in fact, as a reaction to the positivism crisis, thanks to psychoanalysis that helps to distract man from his certainties. Freud shows that not all actions are the result of individual choices, but often escape our consciousness. The distrust of reason before enhanced by Positivism, creates a crisis of traditional values. The Decadent is also originated from international conflicts and this contributes to the crisis of values of Positivism. The Decadent poetry as means of knowledge of the mystery and the only instrument through with the unknown; the poet is a seer: the explorer of the mystery. It is a poem made of nuances, sensations and musical atmospheres. It assists the rejection of rigid forms and traditional metrics, preferring a rhythm made of cadences and free verse. The basic theme is the existential angst, no consolation why not supported by faith, combined with a deep sense of mystery, it made a total immersion in nature.

Coca-Cola is bad, it should be taxed

India charge the Coca-Cola consumption to protect public health The decision to create a new tax of 5 percent on Coca-Cola is contained nelll'ultima budget bill. The motivation that led to this decision is simple this drink is bad for health. The announced price increase has become a favorite among doctors, increasingly concerned about the increase in cases of diabetes and obesity, particularly in children. Contrary, of course, producers will be forced to raise prices

Agnes Tondelli

What to drink Coca Cola do bad for your health, experts and scientists say it every day, turning bitter debates between supporters and opponents of one of the giants of the food market . But some did something more than just warn consumers. The Government of the Party of the Indian People (BJP) has decided to create a new tax on carbonated beverage among the most consumed in the world, to discourage their purchase.

The decision to create a new tax of 5 percent on Coca Cola is contained in the Finance Act 2014-2015.La motivation that has led to this decision, they know the politicians of the new Indian government of Narendra Modi, is simple and it is this drink is bad for health . Taxation, carried out as a measure to protect public health, has been accompanied by a rise of other harmful products, like cigarettes, tobacco and "pan masala", a mixture of chewing spices.

The urgency of taking measures to block the Coca Cola consumption seems to have also filed against the steady growth in product sales. In the new and emerging markets in Asia, such as China, the Coca Cola recorded a sales increase of nine percentage points per year, while in the Indian sales growth was 10 percent.

Of course, there are those who commented on the decision with skepticism, saying that a simple price increase will not discourage the consumption of fizzy drinks, especially since they continue to be advertised by Bollywood star. The announced price increase has become a favorite among doctors, increasingly concerned about the increase in cases of diabetes and obesity, particularly in children. Contrary, of course, producers will be forced to raise prices.

As reported by The Daily , affairs for Coca Cola in India, despite the growth in consumption, they are not going well. The factory in Varanasi, for example, had to temporarily close due to lack of a permit that would have authorized the use of groundwater in the city. The company would invest $ 5 billion in the territory to increase earnings and now likely to see its expansion plans going up in smoke.

Despite repeated actions of Greenwashing adopted by the company in recent years, not least the Coca-Cola Life sweetened with stevia, it seems that this giant is starting to lose grip on consumers. At least on those more careful. An action similar to that of India, and certainly more drastic, has been proposed, for example, two years ago from Bolivia . The government of the time, in fact, decided to banish from the country the product setting a dead line at December 21, 2012.

The decision was made because, according to a statement by the then foreign minister, David Choquehuanca, " the content of Coca Cola has substances that affect the health and may cause heart attacks and cancer. It is a health decision but also of culture . " Not only that, in Bolivia, the multinational has also been repeatedly attacked for the modus operandi used in production processes.

In here we have repeatedly talked about the risks of drinking sodas . In particular, we saw what these products cause our body minute by minute , and how they manage to cause our teeth the same damage created by cocaine and methamphetamine .

European manifesto for a socially sustainable Coca-Cola System

In bottlers across Europe, Coca-Cola is unleashing continuous attacks on jobs, balance work and private life and the rights of workers, with incessant demands for more flexibility. This attitude clearly reveals that, despite considerable financial profits recorded by the Coca-Cola system, the company considers as the only form of reduction of the workforce cuts costs and a general deterioration of working conditions. This industrial strategy is having devastating effects on many European workers and can actually be considered as the 'secret formula' company to achieve the ambitious objectives of the project "Vision 2020".

As members of the EFFAT Coca-Cola Coordination Group, made up of national union representatives, union representatives and members of national reference works councils and the European Works Council, representing the Coca-Cola workforce employed in The Coca- Cola Company, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola Iberian Partners Erfrischungsgetränke AG:

We express our disagreement total for the industrial strategies implemented in Europe by Coca-Cola direction, whose business decisions with a major impact on the employees are taken without appropriate involvement of workers' representatives. We strongly denounce the attitude of this company, so far away from the constructive cooperation we have been used several years ago.

We do not accept that a group which recorded a 20% increase in the value of its shares and has a solid financial position, may choose to dismantle its human capital with an unprecedented attack on jobs and workers' rights.

We can not tolerate that shareholder value is the only interest pursued by management in Coca-Cola: while workers receive constant requests for increased flexibility and are put unable to provide for a decent standard of living for himself themselves and their families, the top executives continue to increase their salaries and bonuses. All this is done without ensuring the sustainable growth of the group through a transparent investment policy, but rather on cutting costs at the expense of the working conditions of those who actually produce the profits.

We can not trust a company that devotes enormous resources to the care of its brand and reputation, but at the same time, does not respect the rights and well-being of its greatest resource, namely its workers, who with enormous efforts every day make Coca-Cola a world-famous product.

We do not accept that you take business decisions involving restructuring and plant closures without taking into account sustainability and the potential effects of these interventions on workers, their families and the communities in which these factories are built in, and, moreover without taking into account alternative measures and counter-proposals submitted by the unions.

We express the strongest condemnation for the violation of trade union rights. Unions must always be considered the principal interlocutor of the company management. Not only the European Works Council, but also the trade unions must be informed and consulted promptly and adequately on international issues, as they are the latter then you have to deal with dramatic social consequences of industrial strategies unscrupulous.

We express our most heartfelt sympathy and our solidarity and support to all colleagues who have lost their jobs due to 'productivity initiatives'.

Our requests to the Central Directorate of Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola Iberian Partners AG Erfrischungsgetränke

In recent years the company's strategy of Coca-Cola has produced devastating effects in all bottling companies active in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA).

In light of this critical situation and the lack of interest in constructive cooperation with the trade union movement demonstrated by the Coca-Cola management in Europe, the EFFAT Coca-Cola Coordination Group, which met in Madrid on 20-21 March 2014 on behalf of force Coca-Cola work employed by the Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, Coca-Cola and Coca-Cola Iberian Partners Erfrischungsgetränke AG, gives an official mandate EFFAT to make the following claims:

We demand that Coca-Cola opens a permanent and constructive dialogue at European level with EFFAT, European social partner officially recognized, and national affiliated unions. We ask that they held regular meetings, at least quarterly, between representatives of the Central Directorate (responsible for human resources of all active bottling companies in Europe and representatives of the Directorate of The Coca-Cola Company) and EFFAT and national unions thereunder. All the issues that concern the European workforce are to be opened up for discussion with the unions in Europe and elsewhere.

We demand that Coca-Cola also establish a long-term dialogue with the EFFAT and the national affiliated unions on issues of anticipation, preparation and management of restructuring taking place in Europe. We urge Coca-Cola to develop a shared plan for better adaptability and employability of workers in Europe by promoting employability through the enhancement of continuing education.

We demand that Coca-Cola illustrious exhaustively EFFAT and national affiliated unions any restructuring proposal that interests the EU and EEA countries, in order to allow trade unions and workers' representatives to undertake an in-depth assessment and They are consulted regularly, avoiding, or at least mitigate as much as possible, violent social and economic impact resulting restructuring.

We demand that Coca-Cola does not make use of redundancies and an end to outsourcing of our jobs, taking into account all possible alternative measures and counter-proposals submitted by the unions. In this regard, we ask that Coca-Cola to engage in a more purposeful in support of the employees made redundant, for example by assisting in the search for a new job.

We demand that Coca-Cola to end the continued requests for flexibility in the workplace that involve enormous sacrifices for workers and are a source of psychosocial risks and stress. The mine flexible work-life balance and the acquired rights of the staff of the company.

We demand that Coca-Cola fully respects the rights of unions and workers and an end to any form of personal discrimination against representatives elected by the workers. No longer we tolerate these outrageous violations of fundamental rights.